45) Kemmeter acted under AACWA to save Joshua's family, but in the process gravely endangered him.
48) This new law sought to clarify the reasonable efforts requirement of AACWA to emphasize that "in making such reasonable efforts, the child's health and safety shall be the paramount concern.
66) Separation-of-powers concerns might have been a thorny issue when DeShaney was decided because AACWA demanded family preservation even above the best interests of the child.
Contrary to the AACWA
legislation, the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) requires agencies to make "active efforts" to provide remedial services designed to prevent the breakup of Indian families.
34 (detailing the AACWA
"reasonable efforts" requirement).
But when Ronald Reagan reduced spending by 25 percent and transformed the program into a block grant, AACWA
became just one more under-funded mandate for child welfare workers to juggle.
One of the problems in implementing AACWA was the interpretation of the term "reasonable efforts.
106) It was the failure of AACWA that led to such high expectations for the Adoption and Safe Families Act, which was lauded as a "revolution" (107) that would be "to the abused and neglected children in our nation's foster-care system what the Voting Rights Act was to black Americans in 1965.
One of the most pronounced changes to AACWA is ASFA's effort to define the reasonable efforts requirement.