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at 34 (explaining that choice (1) could indicate the lack of tense information in AAVE, which is carried by the verb to be in standard English; while choices (2) or (3) indicate that the speaker has knowledge of--but may not express--the copula).
In "The Lesson," Sylvia's consistent narration in AAVE enables Bambara to indicate that Sylvia is an African-American child without the author's having to state this explicitly.
An example of Sylvia's use of AAVE phonological rules is that she often simplifies consonant clusters (apocope) in words like ole for old (88).
Sylvia's AAVE lexicon clearly reflects her heritage.
The unique AAVE monikers also foreground and celebrate the children's black heritage.
For example, when Sylvia shifts code from her usual informal vernacular AAVE to use a vocabulary word that she picked up from Miss Moore, Sylvia emphasizes this shift for the reader: "'So me and Sugar leaning on the mailbox being surly, which is a Miss Moore word" (88).
However, Spears believes that "directness," including uncensored mode, characterizes more speech in AAVE than in Standard American English.
Spears emphasizes that AAVE speakers value "expressive ingenuity and social effect" ("African-American" 237-38).
AAVE also strongly influences Sylvia's syntax in "The Lesson.
AAVE speakers often do not use -ed as the past tense or past participle morpheme.
Sylvia often uses multiple negatives, which are characteristic of AAVE and other vernaculars.
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