These include the imposition of ABAWD time limits after the PRWORA and their subsequent relaxation after 2002.
2004) estimated household-level models of food stamp participation that included dummy indicators for ABAWD households.
Both studies found that exemptions were positively associated with food stamp use, which indicates that the ABAWD rules reduced participation.
These cases were generally exempt from work rules, including the ABAWD work rules.
Figure 3 displays hazard functions that are calculated separately for younger regular, younger special, and older adult-only households who were living in counties with and without ABAWD exemptions.
The specific combination of results reinforces the interpretation that ABAWD policies affected participation.
Survival estimates (not shown) indicate that the changes in participation associated with the ABAWD time limits may be substantial.
The results suggest that the ABAWD time limits encourage work-related exits but also lead to other exits.
To capture effects associated with living in a county with exemptions from the ABAWD time limits, the models also interact all of the duration variables with the ABAWD exemption indicator.
For brevity's sake, the table omits the coefficients for the general duration variables, the interactions of the ABAWD exemption indicator with the duration variables after the first year (interactions for the first year are displayed), and the finite mixture controls for unobserved heterogeneity.
The next 12 rows of Table 2 report the estimated coefficients for the interactions of the ABAWD exemption dummy and the duration controls.
For instance, while our finding that states' waivers from the ABAWD
work requirement led to substantial changes in the food stamp caseload may be due to unmeasured substate variation in macroeconomic attributes, it is also likely that this policy change had effects on the food stamp caseload independent of the contribution of local economic factors.