3] Nonstandard abbreviations: HDL-C, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; CVD, cardiovascular disease; apo, apolipoprotein; ABCA1
, ATP-binding cassette transporter 1; HDL-P, HDL particles; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance; IMA, ion mobility analysis; ESI, electrospray ionization; rHDL, reconstituted HDL; CCVD, carotid cerebrovascular disease; pI, isoelectric point; S-HDL, small HDL; M-HDL, medium HDL; L-HDL, large HDL.
Deleting the ABCA1
gene in young macrophages caused them to behave like old macrophages.
Modifying apolipoprotein A-I by malondialdehyde, but not by an array of other reactive carbonyls, blocks cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1
function is lost in cancer cells, cholesterol builds up in the cells' mitochondria, making their membranes more rigid.
Also, additional data from the literature indicating unaltered ABCA1
expression, another member of ATP dependent MRPs family in cholesterol loaded cytoresistant tubule cells (Zager et al.
HDL can accept cholesterol from cells through ABCA1
Monocyte/macrophage expression of ABCA1
has minimal contribution to plasma HDL levels.
, for example, is responsible for transferring cholesterol, cholesteryl esters and other lipids from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane from which they can be captured by apolipoprotein A-I to form HDL.
We conclude that plasma HDL levels and ABCA1
activity do not control net cholesterol transport from the periphery via the liver into the bile, indicating the importance of HDL in reverse cholesterol transport requires re-evaluation.
Another mechanism in the reverse pathway involves the ABCA1
LXR agonists have been documented to enhance expression of apo A1, CETP, and ABCA1
and ABCG1, which are involved in promoting cellular efflux of cholesterol from the periphery, which is carried by HDL particles to the liver for conversion into bile salts.
In mice, administration of VTP-4 resulted in significant increases of the ABCA1
biomarker with all doses tested.