ADDHAttention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
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Three clusters were identified: ADD/WO (N = 49), ADDH (N = 63), and ADDHA (N = 47).
But the boys with ADD/WO had more marked deceleration to the warning signal and greater acceleration to the tones than did the boys with ADDH and ADDHA.
Still, we have used timed tests to little avail; these tests theoretically encourage impulsive responding or attention lapses, which should sort out the ADD/WO and ADDH groups.
Studies using both school-based and clinic-referred samples have consistently shown children with ADDH to be rated more adversely on impulsivity and aggressive/defiant symptomatology than children with ADD/WO, whereas the latter children are rated more adversely on internalizing symptomatology such as anxiety, depressed mood, and withdrawal or shyness (Barkley, DuPaul, & McMurray, 1990; Berry, Shaywitz, & Shaywitz, 1985; Cantwell & Baker, 1992; Edelbrock, Costello, & Kessler, 1984; Lahey, Schaughency, Strauss, & Frame, 1984; Shaywitz, Shaywitz, Schnell, & Towie, 1988).
Both ADD/WO and ADDH samples exhibit more difficulties in academic areas than controls, but neither group has been consistently found to have greater problems than the other (Carlson, Lahey, & Neeper, 1986; Lahey et al.
Barkley, Fischer, Edelbrock, Craig, and Smallish (1990) contrasted larger samples of children with ADDH (N = 42) and ADD/WO (N = 48).
1991) studied approximately half of the children with ADDH and ADD/WO of the previous study (Barkley, Fischer, et al.
Shaywitz and Shaywitz (1988) have suggested the recognition of three ADD subtypes: ADD/WO, ADDH, and ADDPlus.
1991) found a difference between ADDH boys with and without aggression in their response to staged provocation.