To see how ADH4
evolved, Benner's team read the stretches of DNA that make ADH4
in 27 modern primate species, including lemurs, monkeys, apes and humans.
gene variation is associated with alcohol dependence and drug dependence in European Americans: Results from HWD tests and case-control association studies.
When you look at persons who have the ADH4
gene variant, they begin drinking very early.
Among these, variations in and near ADH4
are among the most widely replicated associations with alcohol dependence, in several populations.
Some of the COGA victories include associations that have been subsequently substantiated by other investigations, such as GABA receptor alpha (GABRA2), cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor (CHRM2), and ADH4
(Edenberg and Froud 2006).
encodes [pi]-ADH, which contributes significantly to ethanol oxidation at higher concentrations (Table 2).
isozyme] belonging to the class I ADH) is the most efficient for this substrate, ADH4
is about 10 times less efficient, and ADH3 is nearly inactive toward alcohol.
3]-ADH (encoded by ADH4
and ADH1B genes, respectively) and CYP2E1 (Bosron et al.