Both conventional groups and APGS produce and mobilize knowledge, but they differ substantially in ends and means.
The process of seeking legitimacy often involves conforming to established forms of knowledge production and following well-established strategies for gaining media attention, APGS that seek to develop and promote transformative practices of political engagement can find themselves in a paradoxical position, wherein the prospects for engaging in transformative practice from a strong, credible position depend upon having successfully engaged in a modicum of "mainstreaming" that might resemble public relations exercises.
Because those with institutionally entrenched power "have privileged access to communication and, therefore, disproportionate control over political discourse," (30) APGS cannot ignore hegemonic sites of knowledge production.
34) The relationship between the news media and oppositional groups, be they unions, movement organizations, or APGS, is one of "asymmetrical dependency" in which the latter need the media far more than the media need them.
54) The same might be said, in varying degrees, of APGS elsewhere, whose social democratizing efforts build platforms beyond narrow policy networks for alternative futures --in Britain, South Africa, Germany, Thailand, and so on.