If data are found I (0) or I (1), the unrestricted ARDL
approach to co- integration is applied.
2013) using ARDL
bounds testing approach on the sample period from 1961 to 2010 and confirmed long run relationship between financial development and economic growth in Ghana.
METHODOLOGY, SOURCES OF DATA, AND ARDL
Ahad (2016) analyzed the effect of income disparity, poverty and high prices on crime in Pakistan during 1984 to 2012 by employing ARDL
Now, as two of the variables are stationary at level and two variables are stationary at first difference the ARDL
approach is suitable to this model than any other.
Keywords: Economic growth, composition of public expenditure, ARDL
expressions of the adopted private investment models are expressed as Model 2 - Model 4.
methods used in the study to interpret and explain the causality relationship between the GDP sectors and the government expenditure components.
The index was used to estimate ARDL
and ARMA models to forecast 12-month inflation expectations, the CCI and the CPI.
To show the robustness of the result for the cointegration, the estimates of the ARDL
were diagnosed as presented in Table 5 with the normality test; functional test; serial correlation test; heteroscedasticity test and stability tests.
The first step in the ARDL
bounds testing approach is to estimate Equation (9 and 10) by ordinary least squares (OLS) in order to test for the existence of a long-run relationship among the variables by conducting an F-test for the joint significance of the coefficients of the lagged levels of the variables, i.
We draw attention to the Westerlund cointegration test being less flexible than the bound test used in time-series ARDL
to explore the presence of a long-run relationship.