ARXPSAngular Resolved X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
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Nondestructive ARXPS can be a valuable tool for measuring thin films on metals, surface segregation in polymers, the amount and depth that surface treatments impart on metals and polymers, as well as clarifying the presence of contaminants on a surface that would disrupt bonding.
In this case, ARXPS cannot be utilized to measure layer thickness, and destructive methods such as sputter depth profiling need to be employed to determine chemical composition as a function of depth.
Besides measuring the chemistry at the top surface, nondestructive ARXPS, sputter depth profiling, and ULAM techniques can be employed to probe the chemistry deeper into a material.