ASRQAcademic Self-Regulation Questionnaire
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The ASRQ (Ryan & Connell, 1989) measures self-regulation in the academic domain and consists of four subscales: external regulation (i.
This is to be expected for three of the four ASRQ subscales (identifying, introjection, and external), which actually measure the lesser forms of autonomy, and for three of the four Academic Coping Inventory subscales (anxiety, projection, and denial), which are construed to be less functional defense mechanisms.
Most of the remaining predictors of GPA were indices of autonomy support: the identified regulation subscale from the ASRQ, the projection subscale from the Academic Coping Inventory, and teacher warmth from the Origin Climate Questionnaire.