Among the genes that are transcriptionally regulated by ATF4
, ATF6, and XBP1, CHOP10 is one of the mostly expressed inducible genes during ER stress (Oyadomari and Mori 2004).
is a substrate of RSK2 and an essential regulator of osteoblast biology; implication for Coffin-Lowry Syndrome.
Although ATF4 mRNA levels increased mildly by Cd[Cl.
Key words: ATF4, cadmium, eIF2[alpha], endoplasmic reticulum stress, Grp78, heavy metal, LLC-PK1 cells, siRNA.
The first contains members of the Jun, Fos, and ATF subgroups of transcription factors (C-FOS, FOSB, C-JUN, JUNB, ATF3, ATF4
, ATF5) that form AP-1 dimers implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival (Shaulian and Karin 2001).