Other systems exhibited increases in management employment prior to 1981; for example, ATSF, CNW, CSX, SP, and UP.
For some systems, such as ATSF and BN, total M&P employment increases gradually after 1976, peaking in the early 1980s and decreasing by 1989 to approximately the level of 1976 employment.
The level of total management employment in 1989 compared to 1976 for the systems can be summarized with respect to the sample average as follows: (1) reflecting sample average - CR, CNW, GTW, FEC, NS, and SP; (2) reduction below sample average (downsizing) - CSX, ICG, and SOO; and (3) increase relative to sample average - ATSF, BN, KCS, and UP.
Systems exhibiting relatively consistent ratios between general office and division management executives after 1983 include ATSF, GTW, KCS, and SOO.
The data suggest that the least amount of structural change in the numbers of managers reported in different subcategories between 1984 and 1989 has occurred in the ATSF system.
Some systems have exhibited uniform reductions across all subcategories of management, such as ATSF and NS.