Although none of the women mentioned creation of cooperatives, many of them were members of agricultural and crafts cooperatives created through AVEGA
or other NGOs and commented on the benefits they received through these cooperatives.
In contrast to the fictional Murekatete, Esther becomes part of AVEGA and helps others to come to terms with their trauma, not only by encouraging them to tell their stories, but in supporting them in their physical and social needs.
27) She describes AVEGA as a "forum" in which "individual suffering" (souffrances individuelles) is expressed through "collective voices" (voix collectives), and the "individual me supported by the collective us", who are in turn represented by a collective story (le moi individuelest soutenu par le nous collectif, Gallimore 15, 19).
For the purpose of this article I will draw on data from interviews and follow-up interviews conducted with representatives from AVEGA and a group interview with four beneficiaries.
The main objectives of AVEGA include: providing holistic support for widows and orphans of the genocide; promoting solidarity between members; remembering the victims of the genocide; and playing a role in the reconciliation of the country.
The women turned to AVEGA for support in the aftermath of the genocide.
The work of AVEGA would not typically be understood as a form of post-conflict community justice.
AVEGA reported that gender inequalities hindered women's participation in gacaca: "In pure Rwandese tradition the woman lives as the man's shadow.
209) Rwandan women's organization AVEGA estimated that less than 100 genocide rape cases were heard in the national courts, (210) but one scholar estimated that there were "much less than 1.
262) The trauma counselor was chosen by the victim, professional counselors are offered from three NGOs: IBUKA, AVEGA, (263) and SOLACE ministries.
The ICTR's reliance on NGOs increased in 1999 when the Victims and Gender Support Unit directed NGOs operating in Rwanda (including HAGURUKA, AVEGA
, Rwanda Women Network and its social network ASOFERWA, and Pro-Femmes) "to provide services in legal guidance, psychological and medical rehabilitation and other forms of assistance, such as resettlement, to victims and witnesses.
was set up to help generate funds to meet some of their needs, as well as to provide trauma counseling and press for justice.