Valvuler pulmoner darlikli olgularin yas gruplarina, ilk ve son ekokardiyografik olcumlere gore dagilimlari Yas CHVPD * HVPD * OVPD * AVPD
* N Toplam <1 ay 6/7 10/2 3/2 1/2 7 20 1-5 ay 4/4 15/9 12/8 0/1 9 31 6-12 ay 8/9 16/14 20/8 0/0 13 44 1-5 yas 30/42 65/39 28/15 1/2 26 124 6-10 yas 21/9 33/35 13/9 1/1 14 68 11-18 yas 5/5 16/16 5/4 0/0 1 26 Toplam 76 76 46 6 70 313 * Birinci siradaki deger ilk ekokardiyografik olcum sonucuna gore olgu sayisini belirtmektedir.
As many of the behaviors described above are also indicative of individuals diagnosed with social phobia, a number of authors have argued that AVPD cannot be meaningfully separated from generalized social phobia (e.
Having considered the developmental processes that might underlie the development of AVPD, the following section presents a model of the maintenance of AVPD based on Goldfried and Sprafkin's (1976) functional-analytic SORC model.
Thus, with respect to AVPD individuals who frequently emit avoidant behaviors in response to social stimuli, as described above, it is highly likely that avoidant behaviors have been reinforced in the past, whereas other forms of social behavior (e.
An example of discriminative learning with respect to social avoidance is the fact that AVPD individuals are often able to interact with at least some close family members (e.
We propose that AVPD is primarily maintained via negative reinforcement of a response chain of anxious and avoidant behaviors.
As reviewed in the AVPD section and briefly summarized here, to effectively communicate in dominance hierarchies, group members should be able to communicate dominance and submissiveness to each other to maintain group order (e.
That is, as reviewed in the above sections on selection by consequences and AVPD, operant learning itself is the result of natural selection.
Just as cultural factors likely play a role with the development and expression of AVPD features (e.