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Figure 2 shows the minimum time lost in seconds for passes of a satellite with a 780 km orbit with different maximum elevations for an azimuth-elevation pedestal (which is azimuth limited) with maximum azimuth speeds of 2, 4, 6 and 8[degrees]/sec.
An azimuth-elevation-tilt pedestal, shown in Figure 4, is an azimuth-elevation pedestal with the addition of a third axis.
The addition of the third axis increases the unit's weight, complexity and manufacturing cost compared to either an X-Y or azimuth-elevation pedestal.
Figure 6 shows the pedestal velocity requirements for an 84[degrees] elevation pass of a satellite with a 780 km sun-synchronous orbit over Sydney for both the X-Y and azimuth-elevation cases.
This condition is not the case for an azimuth-elevation pedestal where the required angular velocity in azimuth increases rapidly as the maximum elevation of a satellite pass approaches 90[degrees].
Kailath, "Algorithms for azimuth-elevation direction finding using regular array geometries," IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol.