The associations between railway noise and BFMI were not statistically significant in all models, but showed similar tendencies of increased estimates for the highly exposed.
We also found evidence of effect modification by comorbidity, with no association between road traffic noise and BMI and BFMI among participants with comorbidity, and a positive association among those without comorbidity (e.
In addition, we found a significant effect modification by railway noise with a stronger association between road traffic noise and BMI, waist circumference, and BFMI among persons exposed to > 60 dB of railway noise.
LBMI and BFMI were positively correlated in this study ([R.
Road traffic noise was not associated with BMI or BFMI among participants classified as having comorbidity based on the Charlson comorbidity index.