Specifically, motivational music (as identified by BMRI ratings) has been found to increase aerobic endurance (Karageorghis & Jones, 2000), isometric muscular endurance (Karageorghis & Lee, 2001), and in-exercise affective states (Karageorghis & Terry, 1999), to reduce perceptions of effort (Karageorghis & Terry, 1999), and to induce pre- and in-task flow states (Karageorghis & Terry, 1999; Karageorghis & Deeth 2002).
That is, internal validity of the BMRI rating procedures could be compromised in that individuals' responses to items may simply reflect their preference for a given tempo and not the motivational quality of the specific musical selection under scrutiny.
Again, such bias is likely to compromise the internal validity of the BMRI rating procedures.
To assess any generalizable differences in the motivational qualities of these musical selections the BMRI (Karageorghis et al.
Musical selections were rated for their motivational quotient through the implementation of the BMRI (Karageorghis et al.
Each subject involved was then provided with a booklet containing 14 copies of the BMRI (Karageorghis et al.
This cassette was deemed to reflect "'motivational" music, as identified by the BMRI rating procedure.