The following physiological assessment items from the BPFT (Winnick & Short, 1999) were performed on all the participants: (1) a sit-and-reach test to determine flexibility, (2) a one-mile run to measure cardiovascular fitness, (3) a push-up test to determine upper-body muscular endurance, (4) a curl-up test to evaluate abdominal muscular endurance, and (5) two site skinfold measures to estimate body composition.
All the data were converted into pass or fail scores according to the BPFT.
The results presented in Table 1 for the body-composition component of the BPFT represent no significant differences among the levels of visual impairments.
The passing rates obtained on the five BPFT health-related fitness components among levels of visual impairments were congruent with the results obtained by Lieberman and McHugh (2001), in which children who were totally blind and those with low vision achieved similar results in the health-related fitness components of the Fitnessgram.
More than half the participants passed the BPFT standards for this component.