However the positive pressures can be simulated temporally and spatially to a great degree of agreement with actual values with the CFD analysis using an initial condition of near atmospheric pressure close to the inlet reed valve opening around 60[degrees] BTDC
and the closing of the valve near about 60[degrees] ATDC.
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One LIF acquisition per cycle was performed at 60[degrees]CA BTDC
The Electroair's spark advance varies by engine and aircraft application and can be as much as a total of 45 degrees BTDC
, according to Electroair's Kobylik.
Minimum emissions (NOx, CO and UHC) are obtained at a spark timing of about 8 [degrees]CA BTDC
2] retards to 5 degrees BTDC
from its base advance of 23 degrees BTDC
The injection pressure was kept constant at 100 bar and the start of spark (SOS) was fixed at 19 CAD (crank angle degrees) BTDC
(before top dead center) for all test cases.
While spark timing is set to 15[degrees] CA BTDC
and the enthalpy of vaporization is comparable for all LPG fuels, the higher adiabatic flame temperature of propene can be considered as a reason of increased N[O.
Table 1: Technical specifications of the engine test rig Engine make Kirloskar Oil Engine Ltd, India Number of Cylinders Single Cylinder bore (mm) 80 Stroke (mm) 110 Rated power BHP 5 Compression ratio 17:1 Rate speed (RPM) 1500 (constant) Injection Pressure 210 bar Injection timing 23[degrees] BTDC
Type of Loading Eddy Current Dynamometer Type of Cooling Water Method of starting Manual crank start Table 2: Specifications of Multi Gas Analyzer Parameter Range Resolution C[O.
Better yet, they can be mapped to advance settings as much as 39 degrees BTDC
6 Injection pressure bar 450 300 Main SOI CA BTDC
The mags use look-up tables--combinations of manifold pressure and RPM--to vary timing anywhere between 20 and 39 degrees BTDC