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In this study an attempt was made to correlate plasma levels of immune activation markers neopterin, beta-2-microglobulin ([beta]2M), and soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha-receptor type I (sTNF[alpha]-RI) with the presence of active TB in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals, and to study the changes following anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT).
In this continuing study, our new goal was to compare the diagnostic potential of beta-2-microglobulin ($2M) with that of six other tumor antigens for breast, ovarian, testicular and prostate cancers.
The three target proteins - beta-2-microglobulin, cystatin C, and retinol binding protein - are FDA approved clinical markers for in-vitro diagnosis of kidney disease and renal failure.
Evaluation showed a statistically significant drop of the pre-dialysis level of the toxin beta-2-microglobulin (Beta(2)m) compared to baseline levels.
Several studies have shown a reduction in many inflammation-related parameters, better nutritional indices, reduced beta-2-microglobulin levels, and improved anemia management achieved with less erythropoietin stimulating agents when hemodialysis patients are treated with ultrapure dialysate, in comparison with standard dialysate.
In an article appearing in the December 2007 issue of the JASMS, researchers at Leeds describe the successful separation and analysis of various folded forms of the proteins cytochrome c and beta-2-microglobulin, an achievement the Ashcroft Laboratory hopes will lead to a more complete understanding of the biological processes responsible for amyloid fibril formation, bacterial pilus aggregation and virus capsid assembly -- all associated with debilitating diseases.
However, Nephros' Mid-Dilution HDF showed an 18% improvement in phosphate clearance over HD, as well as a statistically significant improvement in clearances and removal percentages for beta-2-Microglobulin ("b2M") and leptin.
The study monitored three low-molecular weight protein substances that generally accumulate as uremic toxins in patients treated with conventional hemodialysis: Beta-2-microglobulin (b2m), Cystatin-C (cyc), and Retinol- binding protein (rbp).
Barril concluded that Mid-Dilution HDF therapy is an effective alternative to standard HDF, enabling high convective transport (thereby more effectively removing larger toxins associated with malnutrition, infection, a range of other maladies and mortality in the ESRD patient), with (1) effective removal of Beta-2-microglobulin, (2) adequate balance of adipocytokines, relating to increases in appetite and (3) an overall improved distribution of fluids and body composition.
Patients in the Genasense group also tended to have a higher baseline measure of serum beta-2-microglobulin (P=0.