Data on general characteristics such as age, ethnicity, marital status, family size, total family income, academic degree, use of betel quid
(paan), family history of obesity and time spent in a day on watching television (TV) was collected through interview-cum-questionnaire from all the respondents.
4 Areca nut is available in many forms like commercially dried freeze product including Gutka, Pan masala, Mawa along with conventional form which include betel quid
35,36] The genotoxic effects of betel quid
which are causing chromosomal instability leading to neoplastic process are assessed by easy, rapid and sensitive sister chromatid exchange (SCE) method.
4-7 Apart from the above-mentioned factors, bad chewing habits like tobacco, areca nuts, betel quid
, various forms of mixture of tobacco and areca nuts (locally named as paan, chalia, gutka, naswar, main-puri) are resulting in ever increasing incidence of this cancer, especially in young patients.
Some previous literature showed high association of smoking, alcohol consumption and betel quid
chewing with oral cancer6-8, and added an evidence that tobacco smoking and alcohol abuse play a key role in the pathogenesis of OSCC.
Earlier there was a female predilection as reported by Pindborg et al due to the widespread female habit of chewing betel nut and conventional betel quid
In Karachi Pakistan smokeless tobacco are available in various forms like Betel Quid
(pan), Gutka, and Main puri.
2) The genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals released from betel nut and tobacco and also the calcium hydroxide content of lime present in the betel quid
are thought to be responsible for promotion of reactive oxygen species from areca nut extracts.
3 Other risk factors include poor oral hygiene, mechanical irritation, chewing of betel quid
preparations, lack of vegetables and fruits in diets and seropositivity of human papilloma virus (HPV) subtype 16.
OSMF is a chronic, debilitating and a well-recognized potentially malignant condition associated with areca nut chewing, an ingredient of betel quid
and is prevalent in South Asian population.
A new clinical entity, betel-quid lichenoid lesion, was also proposed to demonstrate an oral lichen planus-like lesion associated with the betel quid
The aim of the present is to observe the relationship of the different socioeconomic classes to the personal oral health care attitudes including tooth brushing and flossing habits, use of miswak, betel quid
chewing and dental visits.