Other studies support the strength and magnitude of peer relationships in the onset of substance use behaviors (Engels & ter Bogt, 2001).
Similar research on adolescent antisocial behaviors argued that delinquency is strongly correlated with peer relations (Engels & ter Bogt, 2001; Haynie, 2001; Williams et al.
That said, the use of performance information by politicians has been explored in the literature, demonstrating a high variance in practice (ter Bogt 2004; Melkers & Willoghby 2005; Pollitt 2006; Askim 2007; van de Walle & Roberts 2008).
Information offered in the shape of formal numeric data such as budget information and formal written data such as reports are not types of rich information (ter Bogt 2004, 228).
This phase offers the greatest potential for rich information to emerge because information provided in face-to-face encounters allows for immediate feedback, including direct verification of the correctness of the information provided (ter Bogt 2004, 228).
With regard to the first cause, empirical evidence suggests the existence of a high quantity of (performance) information, which is, however, low in richness (or quality) as perceived by accountees (ter Bogt 2004, 235).