sup],,, Increased expression of these proinflammatory cytokines and various chemokines, at mRNA or protein levels, is observed in different clinical samples of asthmatics compared with controls, such as peripheral blood, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
(BALF), and bronchial biopsies.
Caption: FIGURE 2: Effects of tangeretin on cell accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
In addition, it has been reported that defensin levels were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids
in many inflammatory lung diseases including cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchiolitis obliterans (18-22).
Diagnostic value of TREM-1 and TREM-2 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
in sarcoidosis and other lung diseases.
Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis by a commercial real-time PCR assay for Aspergillus DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
samples from high-risk patients compared to a galactomannan enzyme immunoassay.
Specific enzyme activities in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
as an aid to diagnosis of tracheobronchitis and bronchopneumonia in dogs.
2,3) Young children are unable to expectorate sputum samples, so other clinical specimens may be the first choice for TB RT-PCR, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
A range of molecules involved in epithelial damage and repair, inflammation, myofibroblast accumulation and matrix deposition, angiogenesis, coagulation, and oxidative stress have been investigated for their potential in fulfilling this role, as biomarkers in tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
, and serum, with a broadening of understanding of the events underlying the scarring of the lung (Table 1).
Twenty-four hours after two challenges, histopathological changes in the nose, sinus and pulmonary airways were compared with gene expression and cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
Presently, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
(BALF) analysis is the only diagnostic test readily available in a clinical setting to determine the type of inflammatory cell present in the lower airways.
95% of the clinically isolated Actinomadura strains from sputa and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
belonged to two species: Actinomadura cremea and Actinomadura nitritigenes.
Physiological and biological responses were characterized by analysis of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), inflammatory cellular recruitment, total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
, proinflammatory cytokine profiling, and ex vivo bronchial ring studies.