108-16 (2004) (stating CATOC "will not require implementing legislation for the United States .
No reservations or understandings with respect to Article 24 were submitted by the United States, despite several others lodged against certain CATOC provisions.
A-C (discussing obstacles faced by witnesses seeking relief through visa system, CAT, CATOC, and state-created danger theory).
See infra Part IV (stressing insufficiency of mechanisms protecting witnesses and arguing for statutory language implementing CATOC Article 24).
See supra note 83 (distinguishing analysis of CATOC Article 24 as issue of first impression before Third Circuit).
2 (presuming non-self-executing nature of CATOC treaty language).
2 (providing relevant portions of CATOC Article 24 relating to witness protection).
See supra note 78 (reviewing relationship between CATOC and domestic legislation); cf.
supra note 87 and accompanying text (suggesting state-created danger doctrine as inappropriate vehicle for incorporating CATOC into domestic law).
ratification of CATOC and its optional protocols addressing human trafficking and smuggling).
2 (concluding treaty language of CATOC to be non-self-executing).