Forest conservation, carbon trade and other ecosystem services could be promoted through partnerships that have proximate likeness to PPPs, such as JFM, CBNRM
, CSR and out-grower schemes for forest dependent communities (Leventon et al.
While the CTs play crucial roles in CBNRM
administration and natural resource access and utilization, a lot remains to be seen in terms of the successes achieved in enhancing SRD; only a few of the CTs substantially generate revenue needed for advancing members' socio-economic statuses.
Market Triumphalism and the CBNRM
'Crises' at the South African Section of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park," Geoforum 39, no.
A formal request was submitted to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism to establish a CBNRM
programme after authorities at the district and regional levels granted their approval.
Zimbabwe's Communal Areas Management Program for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) pioneered CBNRM
in southern Africa.
In fact, the problems with CBNRM
lie in the area of communication.
We suggest that attributes of both TBNRM and CBNRM
have potential application to biologically and socially dynamic environments such as floodplain fisheries (or drylands, e.
The success of the CBNRM
program in Namibia is attributable to a number of factors, but it is hard to ignore the seminal role played by the United States.
The international commitment to CBNRM
so far has been more rhetorical than real.
movement has attempted to return some of the existence benefits of elephants and other wildlife to the local people.
The goals of CAMPFIRE and CBNRM
are simple: to secure community claims to wildlife and to engage local villagers in the sustainable harvest and economical marketing of wildlife products (primarily hunts) - to benefit, in a word, the very people who must pay, on a daily basis, the conservation price of putting up with less-than-benign wild neighbors.
concept was pioneered initially by a small group of conservationists and community leaders, some of whom founded the local non-government organisation, Integrated Rural Development and Nature Conservation (IRDNC) (IRDNC 2011, Jones 1999).