We begin our analysis of CBPM with Bentham's Panopticon, supported by its appearance in Discipline and Punish (1975), Foucault's genealogy of the prison.
Its advantage as a concept is its adaptibility and political neutrality until its mobilization: its construction as such will only be in evident from an inspection of local technologies and practice such as CBPM and performance appraisal, or what Foucault terms the 'grid of intelligibility' -- processes of classification which render a worker population knowable to management (see Townley 1994) .
Since this paper addresses power and control, such fine-grained analysis is attempted by placin g the accounts of individuals who are subject to CBPM at centre stage.
In this paper, we view CBPM as a technology of power operant in discontinuous institutional sites and enmeshed with local relations of power/resistance.
This is important in relation to CBPM because, as we shall endeavour to demonstrate, its classification of human performance necessarily objectifies aspects of workplace practice, affording individuals a particular subjectivity -- that of the productive worker.
Therefore, in this paper, we try to show to what extent disciplinary practice is normalized in the case of CBPM usage by closely examining interview talk.
Data from Section 1 refer to the qualitative aspects of the CBPM and the appraisal systems themselves, and these are reported in amalgamation with documentary and observational data to build up a picture, in each case, of the different CBPM-related scenarios.
These data, collected in both cases, depict ways in which staff were rendered knowable and visible to the management via CBPM and appraisal (which was based on CBPM-generated information).
Table 2 shows the type of feedback from CBPM given to the staff.
CBPM therefore, is a fundamental component of these managerial 'grids of intelligibility' (Townley 1994).
To begin with disciplinary practice, Table 5 indicates that CBPM was a key element in the disciplinary practices of both cases.
The repertoires also display a strongly thematic feature in their mobilization of positions of both management and staff which involved proficiency with or control over CBPM output, outcomes and the technologies through which CBPM was operational.