The expression of adipocytes differentiation related with key factors such as CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP-[alpha]), retinoid X receptor (RXRa) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was up regulated in resistin-over expressing cells (Gong et al.
Abbreviations: TG, trigonelline; PPAR[gamma], peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-[gamma]; C/EBP-[alpha], CCAAT element binding protein-[alpha]; aP2, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein; GLUT-4, glucose transporter-4; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; C/EBP-[delta], CCAAT element binding protein-[delta]; C/EBP-[BETA], CCAAT element binding protein-[beta]; FAS, fatty acid synthase; WST, 2(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3(4-nitrophenyl)-5- (2,4-disulfophenyl; DMEM, Dulbecco modified Eagle medium; FBS, fetal bovine serum; 1BMX, 3-isobutyl- l -methylxanthine; DEX, dexamethasone; RXR, retinoid X receptor; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; ATCC, American Type Culture Collection.
2] Nonstandard abbreviations: GWAS, genomewide association study; CAD, coronary artery disease; MI, myocardial infarction; SNP, single-nucleotide polymorphism; LD, linkage disequilibrium; PROVE IT-TIMI 22, Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy--Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 22 (trial); LDL-C, LDL cholesterol; RAP, LDL receptor-associated protein; C/EBP, CCAAT
enhancer-binding protein; eQTL, expression quantitative trait loci.
Decreasing preadipocyte differentiation capacity with aging is associated with blunted expression of the transcription factor, CCAAT
enhancer binding protein a.
In addition to a CCAAT
box, regulatory elements have been identified in the 5'-flanking region of the IL-8 gene for multiple transcription factors, including glucocorticoid receptor, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1, interferon regulatory factor-1, activator protein-1 (AP-1), CCAAT
/enhancer binding protein [beta] (C/EBP[beta]), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-[kappa]B) (Jung et al.
Previous reports have indicated that CCAAT
enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP[beta]) is important for the function of macrophages and for differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells along the monocytic lineage (Ramji and Foka 2002; Studzinski et al.
Its 5' -flanking region contains the usual CCAAT
and TATA boxlike structures and a number of potential binding sites for several inducible transcription factors including nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) (Luster 1998; Roebuck 1999; Wu et al.
It is known that a number of transcription factors are key regulators in the complex process of adipocyte differentiation including peroxisome proliferator activated receptor [gamma] (PPAR[gamma]) and the CCAAT
enhancer binding protein [alpha] (C/EBP [alpha]).