CCHFVCrimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus
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Because of limited diagnostic facilities for CCHFV in this country, samples collected during 1976-2002 were occasionally sent to laboratories in countries such as South Africa and the United States, where genetic analysis showed that all viruses tested from that location belonged to the Asia-1 genotype (4).
To confirm this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of CCHFV in ticks collected from migratory birds in northern Africa.
To estimate the current situation on CCHFV seroprevalence in both disease-endemic and-nonendemic areas in Bulgaria, we tested serum samples for CCHFV IgG antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit (Vector Best, Novosibirsk, Russia).
We coated Nunc MaxiSorp plates (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) with y-inactivated CCHFV (positive antigen) and negative control tissue culture fluid (negative antigen) diluted in carbonate buffer and incubated them overnight at 4[degrees]C.
The CCHFV is mainly seen in the Middle East and Asia and parts of Europe including southern portions of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
The important members of the genus Nairovirus include CCHFV, NSDV, in addition to GANV, HAZV and Dugbe virus (DUGV).
Kirim Kongo kanamali atesine neden olan CCHFV kuresel yapidadir ve yaklasik olarak 90-100 nm capindadir, zarfli yapiya sahip olan virusun genetik yuku uc kisimdan olusan tek zincirli ve negatif polariteli RNA'dir (4).
For each pathogen (with the exception of CCHFV, for which no seroprevalence was reported), 2 categories of a seropositive volunteer were identified: those who showed detectable levels of antibody before and after deployment; and those who only showed positivity on return, with no detectable antibody in predeployment samples.
The CCHFV genome has been isolated from at least 31 different tick species in Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks) (11).
Our aim was to investigate the role of the migratory birds in spreading CCHFV through attached ticks.
Recent surveys have shown circulation of the virus in livestock existing in the province (16,20), but no further data on the genetic variability of the CCHFV strain from the Hamadan province have been available.
Viruses used in production of ELISA antigenic materials were the 4 DENVs (DENV-1 Hawaii, DENV-2 New Guinea C strain [6,7], DENV-3 H87 strain, and DENV4 H241 strain [8]); WNV EG101 strain (9); YFV Asibi strain (IgM ELISA) or YFV 17D strain (Connaught) (IgG ELISA) (10); CHIKV Indo23574 strain; RVFV ZH 501 strain (11); EBOV Zaire-76 strain (12); MBGV Musoke strain (13); CCHFV IbAr10200 strain (14); and LASV Josiah strain (15).