CCLMECanary Current Large Marine Ecosystem
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1982) and Livingston (1983) have demonstrated seasonal patterns in the mix of prey types utilized throughout the CCLME.
2005) and mesoscale physical processes in the CCLME (Ressler et al.
Pacific hake is probably the most important consumer of zooplankton and forage fish in the CCLME (Field, 2004).
Ecologically, Pacific hake play a dominant and key trophic role in the CCLME both as predator on euphausiids such as Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, shrimp such as Pandahtsjordani, and smaller finfishes such as the Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi, and as prey for other Pacific hake, larger finfishes such as lingcod, Ophidon elongatus, large invertebrates such as Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas, seabirds such as the sooty shearwater, Puffinus griseus, and marine mammals such as the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus californianus (Livingston and Bailey, 1985; Buckley and Livingston, 1997; Baraff and Loughlin, 2000; Field et al.
Population reconstructions based on analysis of fish scales preserved in sediment cores show that the Pacific hake has been an abundant species in the CCLME for thousands of years (Soutar and Isaacs, 1969; Tunnicliffe et al.
In the 28 year history (1977-2005) of the acoustics-trawl survey used to monitor the coastal hake stock, the ability to observe the fish has improved through advances in equipment and techniques, and our collective scientific understanding of the large influence of climate-ocean variability on marine species within the CCLME has increased.
This review focuses on the migratory coastal stock of Pacific hake, which is a major biological component of the CCLME.
Despite the aforementioned seasonal variability of the marine environment in the CCLME, climate forcing at interdecadal (e.
Ocean conditions in the CCLME after the 1998 regime shift can be summarized as a return to cooler, less stratified, and more biologically productive conditions with enhanced southward flow of water and organisms (King, 2005).
A warming trend during the late 20th century has been detected in all global oceans and accounts for a 1 [degrees]C increase in average annual water temperature in the CCLME over the past 50 years (Palacios et al.
Of course, there have been exceptions: 1999, an anomalously cool year in the CCLME (Schwing and Moore, 2000), produced one of the strongest year classes since the late 1980's (Fleischer et al.