14) COX-2, a marker of oxidative stress, was significantly more increased in ACD-RCC compared to sporadic CCRCC
Table-IV shows 14 cases of CCRCC
03 hybrid tumors with exon 2 mutations and 06 cases of
and carried out in collaboration with the National Cancer Centre Singapore, researchers integrated gene expression profiling and RNAi screening data to identify genes involved in CCRCC
development and progression.
Ovarian metastasis of CCRCC
should be considered using a differential diagnosis of ovarian clear cell tumours, even if many years have passed after the diagnosis of a renal primary tumour, and even in cases without anamnestic data of RCC, since the metastasis could be discovered prior to the renal primary.
In recent years, several molecularly targeted therapies such as sunitinib, sorafenib, and pazopanib, which target the receptor tyrosine kinases of VEGF have been approved for CCRCC
Prognostically, the 2 most important entities in the differential diagnosis of CCRCC
are multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential and clear cell papillary RCC (CCPRCC) because these tumors have an indolent clinical course.
Histological and pathological examinations diagnosed CCRCC
with sarcomatoid components (tumor stage: pT3a, pN1, M0, G4).
9) In troublesome cases, demonstration of CD10 (Figure 4) and PAX8 (Figure 5) expressions on immunohistochemistry stains favors a diagnosis of metastatic CCRCC
From a clinical standpoint, the distinction between CCRCC
and t-RCC is important because the well-established treatment protocols for CCRCC
may or may not apply to t-RCC.
9) In observation protocols using biopsies, the histopathologic diagnosis may lead to ablative therapies for aggressive tumor types, such as CCRCC
, with alternate diagnoses being triaged to active surveillance.
Two additional cases met the criteria of anastomosing hemangioma-like pattern in CCRCC
We found that the signal intensity of lesions, necrosis of tumors, the lifted cortex, and the angular interface had no significant effect on diagnosing ccRCCs in our study.