The nineteen parties to CRAMRA
were Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, East Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Sweden, South Africa, South Korea, the USSR, United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay.
Joyner describes in great detail the effort under CCAMLR to impose living resource use regulations in the region's maritime space (the Antarctic Convergence), the work to develop environmental regulations and protection rules related to minerals exploitation through the failed effort to promulgate CRAMRA
, and the successful effort to replace it with the Env ironmental Protocol.
Thus, he emphasizes the adoption of an ecosystem management approach as part of CCAMLR, the development of liability principles in CRAMRA
, and the application of the precautionary approach that underlies much of Antarctic treaty-making and practice.
Negotiating a new regime: How CRAMRA
came into existence.
List of Abbreviations ATCM Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings ATS Antarctic Treaty System CCAMLR Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources CEP Committee for Environmental Protection CLCS Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf CRAMRA
Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals EEA European Economic Area EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone NM Nautical Mile UN United Nations UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ANNEX 1: ARCTIC SOVEREIGNTY CLAIMS AMONG THE FIVE LITTORAL STATES Canada Russia UNCLOS 2003 1997 Ratification UNCLOS By 2013 December 2001 Submission Territorial Submission pending; Largest Arctic Claim will be roughly 1.