GCC tourism officials need to apply this intelligence to their own institutional frameworks if they are to refocus their CTPEs
on the correct priorities for maximum impact, said the study.
Chronic cadmium exposure of human prostate epithelial cells led to a significant increase in global DNA methylation concurrently with transformation, as evidenced by a 53% decrease in unmethylated sites in DNA in the CTPE cells.
Enzymatic activity of DNMT increased up to 220% in CTPE cells compared with control cells.
To study the mechanism of cadmiuminduced RASSF1A and p16 quiescence in CTPE cells, we assessed promoter region methylation.
Effect of procainamide on global DNA methylation and RASSF1A and p16 expression in control and CTPE cells.
DNMT1 inhibition only modestly increased both RASSF1A (23%) (Figure 6B) and p16 (28%) (Figure 6C) expression at the protein level in CTPE cells.
Increased expression of DNMT3b in CTPE cells occurred as an early event in response to chronic cadmium exposure, and, importantly, in advance of malignant transformation.
CONCLUSIONS: CTPE cells become resistant to apoptosis during malignant transformation, and disruption of the JNK pathway and Bcl-2 overexpression play important roles in this resistance.
The CTPE cell line was developed by chronic cadmium exposure of the RWPE-1 cell line as previously described, and CTPE cells form aggressive, prostate carcinoma-like tumors upon inoculation into nude mice (Achanzar et al.
Continuous cadmium exposure for 8 or more weeks induces malignant transformation in RWPE-1 cells, producing the tumor-forming CTPE transformant (Achanzar et al.
CTPE cells acquire generalized resistance to chemically induced apoptosis.
All three MAPKs were phosphorylated in a cadmium concentration-dependent fashion both in control and CTPE cells.