To accomplish this goal, the CZMA
established the National Coastal
selectively superimposes federal law over state and local
However, the American federal-state discord may have real effects on the issuance of oil and gas exploration licenses and leases if states attempt to block leases under the CZMA
because they feel that the proportion of royalties they receive is not equitable.
adopts a general policy of encouraging efficient use and exploration of the coastal zone while paying careful attention to the impact that such activity has on the environment.
In addition, continued strengthening and funding of the CZMA
would support states' efforts to reduce the impact of coastal and upstream land use on coastal water quality and protect vulnerable ecosystems from overuse and degradation.
NOAA awards coastal program grants to states generally according to the requirements of the CZMA
and congressional direction provided through the annual appropriations process.
Of course what this proposed policy does not--and cannot--account for are state-delaying actions such as Delaware's claim of jurisdiction over BP's Crown Landing LNG project's off-loading pier under the terms of the CZMA
41) Although this is similar to the CZMA
(42) in that national policies are implemented through programs at the state level, there are several major differences.
, passed initially in 1972, provides federal funds to states, which in turn manage their coastal areas in accordance with a set of federal guidelines.
The article concludes that the Ninth Circuit was correct in holding that the suspension of thirty-six OCS leases off California are subject to state consistency review pursuant to section 307(c)(1) of the CZMA
In the case of Illinois, which does not participate in the CZMA
program, Cook County was included to provide for nationally consistent totals.
Kerry didn't take a public position one way or the other on that regulatory position; but pipeline industry officials doubt that Kerry would support what environmentalists might deem to be a weakening of the CZMA
and CWA's authority.