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References in periodicals archive ?
In September 2000, baseline measurements revealed that the patient had elevated serum levels of serotonin (1,120 ng/ml; normal: 55 to 260), chromogranin A (300 ng/ml; normal: 2.
of Cases) Positive Negative Pancytokeratin (a) (11) 3/11 8/11 Vimentin (12) 12/12 0/12 EMA (9) 0/9 9/9 Inhibin (6) 5/6 1/6 SMA (4) 4/4 0/4 S100 (4) 2/4 2/4 PLAP (4) 0/4 4/4 Desmin (3) 2/3 1/3 MIC2 (013) (3) 3/3 0/3 LMW cytokeratin (2) 2/2 0/2 Calretinin (2) 2/2 0/2 ER/PR (1) 0/1 1/1 Chromogranin (1) 0/1 1/1 Synaptophysin (1) 0/1 1/1 c-kit (1) 0/1 1/1 CD30 (1) 0/1 1/1 [beta]-HCG (1) 0/1 1/1 LCA (2) 0/1 1/1 AFP (1) 0/1 1/1 Abbreviations: AFP, [alpha]-fetoprotein; [beta]-HCG, [beta] human chorionic gonad-otropin; EMA, epithelial membrane antigen; ER/PR, estrogen and progesterone receptor; LCA, leukocyte common antigen; LMW, low molecular weight;PLAP, placental alkaline phosphatase; SMA, smooth muscle actin.
Small cell carcinoma of the lung shows up to 90% positivity for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and is positive for CD56, chromogranin, and synaptophysin in two-thirds of cases.
In immunohistochemical results, the neoplastic cells were strongly and diffusely positive for chromogranin and synaptophysin and showed a low proliferation index of 15% on the MIB-1 tests (Figure 4, B).
Immunohistochemistry, however, can lead to a definitive diagnosis; this tumor is positive for neuroendocrine markers such as chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and protein gene product 9.
Both NEC and olfactory neuroblastoma express neuroendocrine markers such as synaptophysin and chromogranin, both of which were expressed in our case, as well as S- 100 protein, which was not.
Special stains were positive for chromogranin and synaptophysin, and negative for S-100 protein.
Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks representative of the tumors were retrieved, and immunostaining for AE1/AE3 (Dako, Carpinteria, California), cytokeratin (CK) 7 (Dako), CK20 (Dako), CD56 (Ventana Medical Systems, Tucson, Arizona), synaptophysin (Dako), chromogranin (Dako), and thyroid transcription factor 1 (Dako) was performed using commercially available antibodies.
The paraganglioma tumour cells were strongly immunoreactive for chromogranin and synaptophysin and were negative for keratin immunostains, including high and low molecular weight cytokeratins and cytokeratins AE1/AE3.
Immunostains demonstrated uniform cytoplasmic expression of synaptophysin and chromogranin, also characteristic of carcinoid tumors.
The tumor cells are also positive for neuroendocrine markers, including synaptophysin and chromogranin (Figure, D).
Clinical and demographic findings can help make distinctions, as can pertinent immunohistochemical reactions to synaptophysin, chromogranin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), neurofilament protein (NFP), S-100 protein, keratin, CD45RB, desmin, CD99, and HMB45.