1993), Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity
, Journal of Marketing, Vol.
This is a quantitative study in which data has been collected through an adapted questionnaire from the dissertation" A multidimensional customer-based brand equity
and its application to religious events: The case of Mazu by Hsing-Hui Lin" in this study, back to back translation of English in to Urdu with the help of three experts to ensure linguistic equivalence.
Marketing mix, Brand experience, Customer-based brand equity
, Brand attitude, Brand credibility.
Developing and validating a multidimentional customer-based brand equity
Conceptualizing, Measuring, Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity
9) Kevin Keller, "Conceptualizing, Measuring and Managing Customer-based Brand Equity
," Journal of Marketing, January 1993, pp.
He defined customer-based brand equity
specifically as the differential impact derived from brand knowledge on a consumer's reactions toward a brand as compared to the same consumer's reactions toward a fictitious or unnamed brand within the product category.
2) coined the term customer-based brand equity
(CBBE) and defined it as "the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand.
In general, customer-based brand equity
consists of four main components: brand awareness, perceived quality, brand image, and brand loyalty (Chen and Chang 2008).
Customer-based brand equity
assessment focuses on stage two of BVC, and this is the main stream of research in the literature.
This method measures the outcome of customer-based brand equity