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For instance, the DEALE methods may underestimate life expectancy in older women (Holland, Ellis, Geller, et al.
Where only disease-specific survival rates were available, the DEALE (declining exponential approximation of life expectancy) method of estimating mortality rates from survival data was used.
Average life expectancies for patients with stages C and D prostate cancer were estimated from 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival data in the literature using the DEALE formula.