In Europe in 2011, 9 countries had impairment laws like DUID
, 13 countries had zero-tolerance laws, and 6 countries combined these two approaches into a two-tier system, with three impairment law countries planning on adding zero tolerance laws (Westgate et al.
Detection of illegal drug use is also much more difficult by law enforcement personnel, and to further complicate police departments, laws that apply to those who are suspected of DUID
vary across the country.
But Kleiman argues that many of the people who complained about the DUID
standard during the I-502 campaign were medical marijuana suppliers who were mainly interested in defending their financial interests.
Norton arrived with a THC level of 16 nanograms, more than three times Colorado's new DUID
cutoff, but nevertheless completed a driving course satisfactorily, according to the instructor who accompanied her with his foot hovering over a second brake and his hand ready to take the wheel.
With the short detection window for THC, breath collection may offer an alternative matrix to oral fluid for DUID
and "for cause" workplace drug testing when testing occurs <2 h after smoking.
But in February, Colorado's House Judiciary Committee unanimously approved a bill that would allow DUID
convictions based on nothing more than a five-nanogram reading.
[driving under the influence of drugs] laws were consistent and easier to apply," Walsh said, "we could identify these individuals and get them into treatment before they become a serious threat to public safety?
Many countries (several Australian states, Belgium, France, Spain, Switzerland, and the UK) have legislation that specifically allows the use of on-site testing for drugs in OF, and these tests are used effectively in enforcing DUID
legislation in some of these countries (6 Australian states, Belgium, and France).
OF testing is the matrix of choice for roadside screening for DUID
, with A9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being the most prevalent illicit drug detected in injured drivers in Victoria, Australia (9.
cases, it is important to identify recent cannabis exposure of <8-12 h, especially as cannabis was often the most prevalent drug identified in injured drivers (39).
No studies, to our knowledge, have directly examined whole-blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics in humans following cannabis smoking, although this matrix is often used for forensic and DUID
Establishing reliable evidence of recent cannabis exposure is important for drug treatment, workplace, DUID
, and accident investigations.