On the other hand, VNAs do not measure signals generated by a DUT
In this paper, the goal is to reconstruct the signal from loop to DUT
Model PSXSD, shown in Figure 2(g), is the full DUT
To develop a suitable measurement model for the direct comparison transfer with an adaptor before the DUT
while the reference standard is alternatively connected to a splitter/coupler directly (the calibration scenario in Figure 1(b)), signal flow-graphs, as shown in Figure 2, are used together with the non-touching loop rules  as reported in .
The fabricator has to worry about tight impedance control, and because of the DUT
package, these boards will often have blind and filled vias.
The four-wire DUT
connections of the improved method are desirable because they eliminate voltage errors due to measurement lead and contact resistance.
This PWL source serves as an excitation model for launching an incident step into a DUT
model; this facilitates model validation (6) by ensuring that the source in the simulation and measurements are equivalent and any discrepancy between the measurement and model simulation are only due to the model.
However, this calculation may result in large errors if the DUT
noise is too far below the instrument noise.
When the DUT
output switches from low to high, the current Ircv must flow to charge the capacitance Crcv (tester + fixture capacitance).
Once the LSPs are set up, large volumes of data are sent to determine if the DUT
handles this data correctly.
The spectral responsivity of a DUT
was measured by direct substitution against the ACR.
To shorten development time in the presence of these new test challenges, the WTS provides built-in support for DUT
control tools from leading chipset vendors.