DWCM depends on the d-hop dominating set to form d-hop clusters.
In the proposed DWCM clustering approach, every node communicates with its neighbors to obtain some necessary information.
The set of cluster heads selected by the DWCM algorithm constructs a d-hop dominating set.
Therefore, cluster maintenance in DWCM follows a principle similar to  and , where each node continuously senses the surrounding topology and reacts accordingly with necessary adjustments based on the existing cluster structure.
DWCM can address the following maintenance situations:
Simulations were conducted in the network simulator NS-2  to verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed DWCM clustering algorithm.
The proposed DWCM clustering algorithm and some classical approaches (including Lowest-ID, Highest-degree, MOBIC, and MobDHop), were implemented in NS-2.
The multi-hop clustering schemes of MobDHop and the proposed DWCM are evaluated with 2-hop performance (i.
Firstly, the performance of Lowest-ID based 1-hop clustering, Highest-degree based 1-hop clustering, MOBIC based 1-hop clustering, MobDHop based 2-hop clustering, and DWCM based 2-hop clustering was simulated when the transmission range of the vehicles varied from 50 m to 300 m with a fixed N = 125 and S = 20 m/s.
Once the pipe is cut using the DWCM, the removal of concrete weight coat and Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) may be required depending upon water depth of the pipeline.
The body of the tool, while looking quite different, was functionally the same as that for the DWCM.
After the concrete and FBE has been removed from the pipe, the end must be cleaned up to ensure that the connector seals, or future pigs in the pipeline, cannot be damaged by burrs left over from the DWCM.