With the German government pushing forward, the E2I was integrated into the final declaration of the EU Summit in December 2013:
Regardless of this formal acknowledgement, recent EU peace-building activities show that any E2I is bound to limitations.
Closely related to the importance of a broad coalition of local and external allies, the partnership concept determines the credibility of the E2I.
In autumn 2013, Germany, Denmark, and Portugal circulated an off-the-record paper that addressed the need for the E2I in light of growing maritime insecurity in the Gulf of Guinea.
In accordance with the E2I approach, most missions lack executive power and are designed without a robust mandate.
Yet another major critique is directed at the vague partnership concept of EU peace-building initiatives in general and the E2I approach in particular.
Basically, neither the E2I proposal nor any other strategy document has elaborated on the need for control over enabled actors on the ground.