It is possible that our effort to examine relationships between proximity to the Kiteezi landfill and EBLLs contributed to a higher prevalence of EBLL than that which would be expected using a random sampling design.
The persistence of EBLL in Kampala mirrors that of Chennai, India, where EBLL remained prevalent > 4 years after phaseout of lead from gasoline and was associated with proximity to industrial activity and use of brass/bronze drinking vessels (Roy et al.
Although there are no comparison data predating the phaseout of lead from gasoline in Uganda, the prevalence of EBLLs in 2008 among Uganda schoolchildren (20.
Association of EBLLs with proximity to hazardous waste sites has been frequently documented in the past, especially at Superfund waste sites in the United States (Lorenzana et al.
Ten of the EBLLs were confirmed to be [greater than or equal to]10 [micro]g/dL through a venous initial test or two elevated capillary tests.
2 percent of children nationwide had EBLLs according to venous samples.
Because universal screening is not appropriate in many areas of the country, including rural Minnesota, the utility of screening questionnaires to predict EBLLs in rural areas has been investigated in several studies (Binns, LeBailly, Fingar, & Saunders, 1999; Hopkins, Quimbo, & Watkins, 1995; Kazal, 1997; Muniz, Dundas, & Mahoney, 2003; Robin, Beller, & Middaugh, 1997; Schaffer, Kincaid, Endres, & Weitzman, 1996).