EMCVEncephalomyocarditis Virus
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Louis encephalitis virus, Rocio virus, Ilheus virus, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, Mayaro virus, Trocara virus, Oropouche virus, Caraparu virus, Murtucu virus, Guaroa virus, hantavirus, Machupo virus, and Tacaribe virus; after the cardiovirus isolation, EMCV antibody also was used.
Serum specimens were tested for neutralizing antibody against EMCV by a modified microneutralization assay (26).
In a phylogenetic reconstruction done on the basis of sequences from the VP1 capsid region, the Peru viruses clustered with sequences of EMCV strains derived from pigs from Belgium, Cyprus, and Italy; the EMCV reference strains and field strains from pigs and orangutans formed separate subgroups within the EMCV species group (Figure 2, panel A).
Our ongoing febrile surveillance studies identified and documented 2 cases of human EMCV disease, each of which was diagnosed by virus isolation from acutephase serum.
Few cases of human EMCV disease have been documented; however, in the older literature, virus isolation was reported from cerebrospinal fluid, blood, feces, and throat washings of patients (particularly children) with aseptic meningitis, poliomyelitis-like paralysis, encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and fever of unknown origin (10-12).
EF165067) (16) with genomes of EMCV and TMEV strains.
The following sequences were used for analysis and primer design: Saffold virus (EF 165067), TMEV strain DA (M20301), TMEV strain GDVII (M20562), TMEV strain BeAn (M16020), Vilyuisk virus (M94868), Theiler-like virus of rats NGS910 (AB090161), Mengo virus (L22089), and EMCV (X87335).
The 5'-noncoding region of this sequence was aligned with that of other cardioviruses, including TMEV, EMCV, and Mengo virus.
Table 4 shows amino acid identities of strains of SafV, theilovirus, and EMCV in VP 1.
Although rats and mice are the natural hosts for EMCVs, these cardioviruses have been found to infect many animal species including pigs, rodents, elephants, macaques, and humans (6-9).
Sub sequent bioassay-guided fractionation led to the detection of gallic acid as a potentially active constituent that significantly reduced indirectly the CPE of EMCV on L929 cells in a dose-dependent manner.