By contrast, the Nenets and Enets languages have cliticized the inflected copula and the copula has been dropped which has resulted in the verbal-like encoding of nominal predicates.
In contrast, in both Forest Enets and Tundra Nenets, (17) the postposition is still free-standing.
which shows regular strengthening j > d' and the regular spirantization of dental stops in Forest Enets makes a common origin quite likely.
Finally, the valency patterns of several verbs in Nganasan and Forest Enets require the same postposition:
3) The long i in the Enets general prohibitive auxiliary (Castren 1854 : 518) has obviously emerged through adherence of the plural marker *j that designates any plural object, on the one hand, and the marker *j of reflexive conjugation, to the original stem vowel e (ni- < *ne-j-), on the other (see e.
If all the data by Castren is truthful, it may be a reference to the option that the prohibitive verb stems of the Nenets no-, no-, Nganasan ne- and Enets i- were very restrictedly used in his time, and that later their spheres of use in imperative usually broadened.
As stated in the introduction, neither Forest Enets nor either Nenets varieties shares 2P and 3P pronouns with Nganasan, which uses form cognate from Proto-Samoyedic and beyond (Hajdu 1983 : 105).
From a synchronic perspective, Enets and to some extent Nenets pronouns have an unusual morphological structure: in Forest Enets, the singular pronouns serve as the unmarked base from which dual and plural are formed by suffixing the appropriate genitive possessive suffixes (Px).
This means that number on pronouns in Forest Enets is expressed by possessive suffixes and in this respect Forest Enets differs even from Nenets.
The Enets material is very scanty and I cannot say anything concerning possible different rules for evidentials depending on the semantic type of the verb used.
As was suggested above already, the Enets auditive suffix -mono- etc.
also Enets monos 'to rumble' (Mikola 1995 : 150), Nenets munots 'to ring', Nganasan mununtu 'to say' (Janhunen 1977 : 95).