is one of the oldest and largest veterinary universities in Europe, created in 1766, with an easy access by subway.
The placenta, which is part of the fetus, is the overall modulator of the fetus's responses to the maternal environment, and so has a claim to be the agent that programmes adult susceptibility to disease (Challis; Claudine Junien, UMR INRA ENVA
CNRS 1198, Jouy en Josas, France).
Address for correspondence: Nicole Pavio, UMR 1161 Virologie ENVA
, INRA, Anses, Laboratoire de Sante Animale, 23 Ave du General De Gaulle, 94706 Maisons-Alfort, France; email: npavio@vet-alfort.