Lane, Barton-Arwood, Spencer, and Kalberg (2007) examined how to support in-service teachers in learning this specific FABI process.
Each team supported one student during this series by applying each step of the FABI process with coaching support.
Third, practitioners read published FABI cases to serve as exemplars and learned each step within this multi-component intervention practice supported by the first and second authors.
Concepts and strategies taught and applied in this training series were those of the systematic process for conducting FABI published by Umbreit and colleagues (2007) and grounded in applied behavior analysis (see table 2).
Step-by-step checklists were created to guide teams through each step of the FABI process.
They provided three ratings for each item: how knowledgeable they perceived themselves to be about each concept or strategy, how confident they were in their ability to use the concept or strategy in the FABI training process, and the perceived usefulness of each concept or strategy.
Session Agenda Topics and Homework Activities 1 Welcome and Introductions * Overview of functional assessment- based interventions (FABI) * Illustrations at the elementary and middle school levels * Participant Consent: For teams with at least one consenting member, parent consent forms and instruction provided Pre-training assessment Step 1: Determining which students need a FABI Referral Checklist Step 2: Conducting the functional assessment and determining the hypothesized function 2.
Rather than using applied behavior analytic techniques to simply suppress undesirable behaviors, FABIs use a range of tools including teacher, student, and parent interviews; direct observation (A-B-C) data; rating scales, and experimental analyses (functional analysis) to identify antecedents (A) that set the stage for problem (target) behaviors (B) to occur, and the consequences (C) that maintain the target behavior.
For example, FABIs have been conducted in authentic settings including general education classrooms, self-contained classrooms, and alternative learning centers and have been conducted for students at risk for school failure, attention difficulties, emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), autism spectrum disorder, and severe disabilities (e.
Although mandated in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004), concerns have been raised by the research community that this mandate may not be warranted if FABIs do not meet minimum criteria to establish it as an evidence-based practice.
One issue making it difficult to evaluate FABIs as a practice is the tremendous variability in how (a) data collected using traditional functional assessment tools are analyzed, (b) interventions are designed based on functional assessment results, (c) core quality indicators are addressed in interventions leading to legally defensible plans, and (d) generalization and maintenance are assessed (Benazzi, Horner, & Good, 2006; Goh & Bambara, 2012).
We suggest this systematic approach to conducting FABIs is at least a promising practice--and perhaps now an EBP--yielding socially valid changes for school-age students with and at risk for behavior challenges.