15) Although a few New York unions embraced the reeducation program and the American Federation of Labor urged all of its locals to support the work of the FBVE, the reeducation program collided with organized labor's long-standing suspicion of state-sponsored vocational training.
The FBVE and the NYBVE contributed to the impression that wounded veterans, in particular, would be encouraged to train for new and highly-skilled careers.
The FBVE also predicted that rehabilitation could be especially transformative for disabled African-American veterans.
All norovirus outbreak strains reported to the FBVE network from January 1999 through November 2008 were included if a full or partial capsid sequence was involved.
The above selection criteria were applied to the FBVE database to retrospectively identify clusters of outbreaks that may have involved international dissemination of food.
In the FBVE dataset of 1,456 capsid sequences, 36 outbreaks had previously been identified as linked outbreaks in 10 clusters, based on standard epidemiologic investigation (24).
This repeated introduction of sporadic cases would remain undetected at present because routine surveillance for sporadic cases is rare (32) and is not the current practice of FBVE.
Incompleteness of surveillance data is a common problem (34) and has been recognized in surveillance of foodborne viral infections (35), including in the FBVE database (19,20).
Because surveillance systems are known to vary in terms of design, effectiveness, and priorities (6,9-11), a structured telephone survey/questionnaire (available from the authors) was conducted among FBVE participants to categorize national surveillance systems of the involved countries.
Combined epidemiologic and virologic outbreak reports from countries capable of detecting foodborne outbreaks derived from the FBVE network were collected in a protected web-based database on the basis of a structured questionnaire (www.
The FBVE database (6) enables analyses of combined epidemiologic and virologic data.
In addition, we compared the numbers of off-seasonal, seasonal, and cruise ship outbreaks in 2006 and 2007 with the numbers from previous years, from the FBVE database.