Ng, "Multiculturalism as Ideology," 38-45; Fleras and Elliot, Multiculturalism in Canada, 62-65.
Fleras and Spoonley also criticize biculturalism's failures
2006, Anae 2002, Macpherson 1999, Fleras and Spoonley 1999).
Fleras A and Spoonley P (1999): Indigenous politics and ethnic relations in New Zealand.
Furthermore, the MulticulturalAct of Canada was a political and societal means to deal with multiple social injustice issues facing Canada in the 1960s and 1970s, such as the Quebec separatist movement, widespread protest by Aboriginal/First Nation people, and social injustices as a result of widened immigration (Brenton, 1989; Fleras & Elliot, 2002; Harles, 1998).
Some writers have suggested that it is socially constructed in defense of valued places only in the context of a perceived threat (Dalby and Mackenzie 1997), or for community promotion (Prus and Fleras 1996), and as such is more of a political, rhetorical device.
49) Augie Fleras stated, "To put it bluntly, Maori seats were established and perpetuated for the wrong reasons, and growing Maori indifference toward involvement in the system is the price that is now being paid.
Fleras puts much the same thing in another way: `What we appear to have instead of a paradigm shift in indigenous-State relations is a messy paradigm "muddle"'.
1997); Augie Fleras & Jean Leonard Elliott, `The Nations Within': Aboriginal-State Relations in Canada, the United States, and New Zealand (1992); Hurst Hannum, Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination (1990); David Maybury-Lewis, Indigenous Peoples, Ethnic Groups, and the State (1997); The Rights of Minority Cultures (Will Kymlicka ed.
The existence of these nations within the United States political system should not be ignored in any study of comparative government (Cassidy and Bish 1989; Cornell 1988; Deloria and Lytle 1983; Fleras and Elliott 1992; O'Brien 1990; and Wilkinson 1987).
When you pack your meals, you put a piece of your heart there so that children will feel your love,' Fleras said
Since its formal abandonment of racist preferences, however, Canada has witnessed an upsurge of international migrants whose Asian, African, and South American backgrounds have visibly transformed the country's ethnic landscape, as well as led to heated public debates about Canada's cultural identity (Wallis and Fleras 2008).