First, participants in the FLLIP program are self-selected and they are from only one state.
For example, much of the FLLIP training was provided through community social service agencies, and caseworkers in TANF offices also played a vital role by referring clients to the program.
For example, the TANF recipients participating in FLLIP met their work and training requirements through FLLIP participation.
For example, the Illinois Department of Human Services used unspent TANF "maintenance of effort" funds to support the FLLIP training.
Table 1 Percentages of Correct Responses on FLLIP Knowledge Test (N=163) Number Pre- of Items Training All knowledge items 48 54% Knowledge Area Predator lending practices 8 58% Public and work related benefits 9 50% Savings and investing 10 47% Banking practices 7 68% Credit use and interest rates 8 61% Post- Knowledge Training Improvement (a) All knowledge items 74% 37% *** Knowledge Area Predator lending practices 82% 41% *** Public and work related benefits 74% 48% *** Savings and investing 68% 45% *** Banking practices 82% 21% *** Credit use and interest rates 75% 23% *** (a) Measured as percentage improvement from pretest to posttest scores.
Given that each FLLIP site has discretion in recruiting as long as participants have incomes of 200% or less of the poverty level, one may wonder why the differences in characteristics are so great at these two types of sites.
These differences point to a broader recruiting point suggested by our FLLIP staff interviews.
Both previous research and our FLLIP study suggest the broad parameters of financial management training that may be useful with low-income audiences.
As our FLLIP data illustrate, low-income audiences can be quite diverse, so assessment of training needs at the beginning of sessions is advisable.
Our FLLIP implementation research suggests that, even if a solid training curriculum is developed, recruiting for and graduating participants from low-income financial management training is challenging.
Interviews with FLLIP staff also indicated that education-only sites increasingly were experimenting with tangible incentives, such as tying completion of the training to opening bank accounts or providing graduates with calculators or other small inducements.
For example, in FLLIP, TANF participants are provided with transportation and child care vouchers if needed to assure participation.