uses height, weight and medical, smoking and family history to predict a person's risk of developing osteoporosis over the next 10 years.
Several risk assessment tools, such as the FRAX
calculator mentioned earlier, are available to predict fracture risk among untreated people with low bone density.
Considering the high prevalence of HO, every patient with CLD should have complete evaluation of bone mass by detecting vitamin D and blood calcium levels, measuring BMD by DXA, besides using FRAX
If the FRAX
indicates that you have at least a 20 percent risk of a major fracture or at least a 3 percent risk of a hip fracture over 10 years, it's a good idea to get treatment.
Association of BMD and FRAX
score with risk of fracture in older adults with type 2 diabetes," JAMA, vol.
In people with HIV, FRAX
does not predict DXA-determined osteoporosis or prevalent fracture.
Table 1 Combined Risk Factors for Post-Kidney Transplant Bone Fractures FRAX
Risk Factors for General Risk Factors for Kidney Transplant Population Recipients [check] History of fragility [check] Persistent hyperparathyroidism fracture [check] Parental hip fracture [check] Duration of dialysis treatment [check] Tobacco use prior to kidney transplantation [check] Long-term steroid use [check] Calcium and vitamin D deficiencies [check] Rheumatoid arthritis [check] Immunotherapy with corticosteroids [check] Female [check] Inadequate return of renal function [check] Age 65 and older [check] Impaired mobility/sedentary [check] Alcohol use lifestyle [check] Bone mass density measurement with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) Sources: Alshayeb et al.
Diagnosing osteoporosis the easy way: FRAX
15) Guidelines for bone health in people with HIV say providers should use FRAX
(without DXA) to assess fracture risk in (1) all HIV-positive men 40 to 49 years old, and (2) all HIV-positive premenopausal women at least 40 years old.
provides a 10-year risk probability for an individual to suffer a hip fracture or major osteoporotic fracture.
5 plus one risk factor), and it is now recommended that treatment decisions for patients with osteopenia incorporate the World Health Organization (WHO) FRAX
tool to aid in determining which patients with osteopenia are at high risk for fracture.
6), Densitometry testing through the family physician may be performed along with using the CAROC or FRAX