To understand the delegation to localities of the implementation of pretreatment standards, one must understand also that the main impact of the FWPCA has not been through uniform national water quality standards, but rather through the Municipal Wastewater Treatment grant program.
Despite the centrality of the grant program to realized reductions in point source pollution under the FWPCA, the program merits little attention in environmental law casebooks.
Despite the original FWPCA
and amendments following the Act's passage, water quality remained well below applicable standards, and enforcement of the standards was nearly nonexistent.
22) Since citizens suing under the FWPCA
are deemed "private attorneys general," there is little left to do after the government has negotiated an agreement.
In 1977, FWPCA
was amended again and renamed the Clean Water Act (CWA).
318) Arguably, the 1972 exemption discussed above and created by the amendment to the FWPCA
, exempted EPA's action in the case.
114 (adding sections 11(b)(4) and 11(b)(5) to the FWPCA
to provide monetary penalties for oil in navigable waterways only).
The Act is commonly referred to as the "Clean Water Act" because of the substantial amendments added to the FWPCA
through the Clean Water Act of 1977.
controversial reforms of FWPCA
, CERCLA, the ESA, electric utility
149) A comprehensive revision to the FWPCA
in 1972 added to the existing but ineffective) ambient requirements.
Although the FWPCA
is similarly silent on the liability standard, Congress was aware that courts had interpreted it to be a strict liability standard.
, the NRC regulates the radioactive component of